Welcome to the Third Edition of the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction, edited by John Clute, David Langford, Peter Nicholls (emeritus) and Graham Sleight (managing). All the more than 17,650 entries are free to read online; samples appear below. Click here for the Introduction and more on the text; here for Frequently Asked Questions; here for Advice to Students on citations. Find entries via the search box above (more on searching here) or browse the menu categories to the right of the SFE logo. To see what links to the current entry and to identify contributors' initials, click the Incoming / Citation button at the top of the entry.

2001: A Space Odyssey [comics]

Tagged: Comics

1. US oversized tabloid-format perfect-bound Comics publication. Publisher: Marvel Comics. Editor: Jack Kirby. One issue dated 1976.This "treasury edition" comics adaptation of 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) was part of the deal which led to Jack Kirby's brief return to Marvel Comics in the mid-1970s. Though generally faithful to the film, Kirby made some alterations, for example giving the Computer Hal 9000 lines of dialogue from an earlier version of the script; some additional dialogue was also taken from the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) by Arthur C Clarke. Kirby interspersed his artwork with black and white stills from the film. Frank Giacoia (1924-1988) also contributed artwork; com...

Busby, F M

Tagged: Author | Fan

(1921-2005) US communications engineer, long-time sf fan (from 1950) and author; co-editor with his wife Elinor Busby of the 1950s-1960s Fanzine Cry of the Nameless (see Cry), which won a Hugo award in 1960, producing some of this early work as by Renfrew Pemberton. He began publishing sf stories with "A Gun for Grandfather" for Future Science Fiction in Fall 1957 – a story which appears in Getting Home (coll 1987) – but he did not become active until the early 1970s. He attended the Clarion Science Fiction Writers' Workshop in 1972, at which point he went freelance as a writer, publishing short fiction frequently, and beginning his career as a novelist with the Space-Opera Demu series about...

Trumbull, Douglas

Tagged: Film | People

(1942-????) American cinematic special effects expert and film director. Originally he trained as an architect but while still at college switched his interest to graphic arts. After working with advertising agencies as a technical illustrator, he was hired by Graphic Films, a Hollywood company, to work on animated promotional films for NASA and the USAF. One of these films, the Cinerama Space Documentary To the Moon and Beyond (1964), was seen by Stanley Kubrick at the New York World's Fair in 1964. Kubrick remembered this work when he was preparing 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) and hired Trumbull as one of four special-effects supervisors. Trumbull worked for three years on 2001 and was mai...


Tagged: Theme

The Gaia hypothesis, proposed by UK scientist James Lovelock in the 1960s and now usually termed Earth System Science, suggests that Earth's Biosphere forms a self-regulating Homeostatic System analogous to a living organism (see Ecology); the name is taken from the Greek earth-goddess, also spelt Gaea or Ge, and was suggested to Lovelock by William Golding. The provenance of the concept lies deep in Western civilization, being first clearly articulated by Plato in his Timaeus (circa 360 BCE), though its clear association with pantheism (which Christianity treated as heresy during the centuries of its domination) may explain the infrequency of references to anything like Gaia before recent t...

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